Phreatic eruptions

Diagram of a phreatic eruption. (key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Magma conduit 3. Layers of lava and ash 4. Stratum 5. Water table 6. Explosion 7. Magma chamber)

Phreatic eruptions (or steam-blast eruptions) are a type of eruption driven by the expansion of steam. When cold ground or surface water come into contact with hot rock or magma it superheats and explodes, fracturing the surrounding rock[47] and thrusting out a mixture of steam, water, ash, volcanic bombs, and volcanic blocks. The distinguishing feature of phreatic explosions is that they only blast out fragments of pre-existing solid rock from the volcanic conduit; no new magma is erupted. Because they are driven by the cracking of rock stata under pressure, phreatic activity does not always result in an eruption; if the rock face is strong enough to withstand the explosive force, outright eruptions may not occur, although cracks in the rock will probably develop and weaken it, furthering future eruptions.
Often a precursor of future volcanic activity, phreatic eruptions are generally weak, although there have been exceptions.[49] Some phreatic events may be triggered by earthquake activity, another volcanic precursor, and they may also travel along dike lines. Phreatic eruptions form base surges, lahars, avalanches, and volcanic block "rain." They may also release deadly toxic gas able to suffocate anyone in range of the eruption.

Volcanoes known to exhibit phreatic activity include:

  • Mount St. Helens, which exhibited Phreatic activity just prior to its catastrophic 1980 eruption (which was itself Plinian).[48]
  • Taal Volcano, Philippines, 1965.
  • La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles), 1975-1976 activity.[49]
  • Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat, West Indies, 1995–2012.
  • Poás Volcano, has frequent geyser like phreatic eruptions from its crater lake.
  • Mount Bulusan, well known for its sudden phreatic eruptions.
  • Mount Ontake, all historical eruptions of this volcano have been phreatic including the deadly 2014 eruption.